Category Archives: Booklet

【Booklet】Trace the origin of cooperative in JAPAN― Mind of benevolence, and executing skills (Jan 1, 2015)

At any age, people are living having difficulty of their own. The cooperative movement began trying to solve their economic and social problems, such as tyranny of loan sharks in the Meiji era, food shortages during the war and post-war, pollution during the period of high economic growth, and expansion of the income gap…. By tracing the origin of cooperative movement, we can learn that the pioneers of movements had overcome such various difficulties with their own “benevolence of heart” and “executing skills”. ・Yugaku Ohara and Sontoku Ninomiya ・Tosuke Hirata and Yajiro Shinagawa ・Toyohiko Kagawa and Masayo ObaMr. ・Yuichiro Nakagawa, Professor of Meiji University

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【Booklet】Trace the origin of cooperative in JAPAN (Jan 1, 2015) <Yugaku Ohara and Sontoku Ninomiya>Senzokabu association toward survival of the family/ Spread of hotoku thought

In Kanto area at the end of Edo period, two splendid farmer leaders appeared.They are Yugaku Ohara (1797-1858) and Sontoku Ninomiya (1787-1856). Two people challenged the reconstruction of rural areas that were devastated by the Great Famine of Tenpo years and Tenmei years. Yugaku established the mutual organization (“senzokabukumiai” (association of ancestors shares)), for the purpose of survival of the families, at Nagabe village (now Nagabe, Asahi-city, Chiba prefecture) Association’s management methods are as follows; ①Each association member contributes farmland equivalent to 5 gold cars, and all members share them and reserve the profit obtained from them, ② Until the reserve per family becomes equal to or more than 100 … Continue reading

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【Booklet】Trace the origin of cooperative in JAPAN (Jan 1, 2015) <Tosuke Hirata and Yajiro Shinagawa> Protect small and medium-sized producers / First sangyokumiai (cooperatives) law

Meiji government after the Meiji Restoration aimed for “encouragement of new industry”, and tried the promotion of agriculture, main industry at that time. Mr. Tohru Shimizu, general manager of Basic Research Division of Norinchukin Research Institue Co.,Ltd, points out that Meiji government ordered the European literature, invited European scholars, and at last found out about existence of mechanism of European cooperatives. Tosuke Hirata (1849-1925) studied in Germany after he joined the Tomomi Iwakura delegation. He met Yajiro Shinagawa (1843-1900), Interior minister after, who had been stationed in the local. After returning home, Hirata became bureaucracy, and drafted “credit cooperatives bill” in order to protect small and medium-sized producers from loan … Continue reading

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【Booklet】Trace the origin of cooperative in JAPAN (Jan 1, 2015) <Toyohiko Kagawa and Masayo Oba>Build the prototype of the mutual aid / Medical mutual aid

Toyohiko Kagawa (1888-1960) was the person of “anyway, action”. At the age of 21, while studying as a Christian God student, he moved into the slums of Kobe city. While leading the labor movement in the Kansai region, he established consumption cooperatives in Osaka city and Kobe city. At first he started “movement of poverty relief”, and gradually he transfered the emphasis on “movement of poverty prevention”. When the Great Kanto Earthquake occured, he rushed to the site and provided soup kitchen for the next day. After the earthquake, he transferred his activities to Tokyo, and established consumption cooperatives and credit cooperatives in downtown and also fonded University Co-op. He … Continue reading

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【Booklet】Trace the origin of cooperative in JAPAN (Jan 1, 2015) <Mr. Yuichiro Nakagawa, Professor of Meiji University> Life defense and social contribution Anglo-Japanese comparison Top priority to trust with the local community

When considering the headwaters of the cooperative, it is difficult to compare Japan and Europe, especially Japan and UK. Because the era background is totally different. The Industrial Revolution, which began in around 1760 in UK, has promoted economic and social change. As a result, any farmers or any urban workers had to “work and live” as “wage workers”. Progress of the industrial revolution began to cause the wage problems and unemployment problem.Therefore workers established cooperatives to ensure the daily necessities such as groceries, and began the activities to protect their own life spontaneously. However, these cooperatives for “life-defense” could not produce network since they were spontaneous, ended in “isolated experiments”. … Continue reading

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